UIJRT » United International Journal for Research & Technology

Estimation of Volume of Sand Using Vertical Electrical Resistivity Imaging: A Case Study in Tombia, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

Total Views / Downloads: 173 

Cite ➜

Rowland, E.D., Omonefe, F. and Ejaita, E., 2021. Estimation of Volume of Sand Using Vertical Electrical Resistivity Imaging: A Case Study in Tombia, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. United International Journal for Research & Technology (UIJRT), 2(12), pp.79-84.


The electrical resistivity survey using the Schlumberger electrode configuration was conducted in parts of the Yenagoa local government area, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. The survey was aimed at estimating the volume of sand in a piece of land measuring 60 m by 30 m known as the study area.  Nine 1D Vertical Electrical Sounding Points were acquired in the study area. ABEM Terrameter SAS 1000 was the instrument used with IPI2win and ZONDIP software for processing. The result obtained reveals that the area contains three layers within the depth of investigation. Lateritic sand with resistivity ranging from 42 Ωm to 1029 Ωm and thickness varying from 1.3 m to 3.0 m made up the first layer. The second layer is sand with resistivity values ranging from 476 Ωm to 3089 Ωm with thickness varying from 10.8 m to 23.2 m. The third layer is sandy clay with resistivity values ranging from 24 to 1024 Ωm. The survey shows that a considerable quantity of sand can be dredged from the area. The estimated volume of sand within the area of study is estimated to be approximately 550,767.60 tonnes. The result shows that sand deposits can be mined economically for domestic and building purposes and are also suitable for other engineering and construction work due to their inherent water permeability and storage ability.

Keywords: VES, 1D Resistivity, Volume of Sand, Tombia, Yenagoa.


  1. Abdullahi M.G, Toriman M.E, and Gasim M.B (2015). The Application of Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) for Groundwater Exploration in Tudun Wada Kano State, Nigeria. J GeolGeosci 4:186. doi:10.4172/2329-6755.1000186
  2. Afuwai G.C, Lawal K.M, Sule P, and Ikpokonte, A.E. (2015). Interpretation of Geoelectric Pseudo-Section of a Profile Across a Functional Borehole Located In-between Two Non-Functional Dug-Wells. Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, 15(1), 1-2.
  3. Allen, J. R. L., (1965). A review of the origin and characteristics of Recent Alluvial sediments of the Niger Delta. Sed. 5:89-191.
  4. Avbovbo, A. A., (1978). Tertiary lithostratigraphy of Niger Delta: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, 62: 295-300.
  5. Buvat S, Schamper C, and Tabbagh A., (2013). Approximate Three dimensional resistivity modelling using Fourier analysis of layer resistivity in shallow soil studies. Geophys J Int 194:158–169.
  6. Koefoed O, Mallick K (1979). Geosounding principles 1, resistivity sounding measurements. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
  7. Ahmed E. S. and Suleiman A., (2007). 2D electrical resistivity imaging techniques to map the hydro-stratigraphic units of the Quaternary aquifer of Al Ain area, UAE. Arab Journal Geosciences, 6: pp 2 – 58
  8. Acworth R. I., (1987). The Development of Crystalline Basement Aquifers in a Tropical Environment. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology, 20: pp 265–272
  9. Akpokodje E. U. and Etu-Efeotor J. O. (1987). The occurrence and Economic potential of clean sand deposits of the Niger Delta. Journal of African Earth Science, 6: pp 61-65
  10. Ahzegbobor P. , Kehinde D. O. and Emmanuel S.  J. (2016). Groundwater Potential Assessment in a Sedimentary Terrain, Southwestern Nigeria.  Arab Journal Geosciences, 9: pp 496 DOI 10.1007/s12517-016-2524-5
  11. Chambers, J.E., Wilkinson, P.B., Weller, A., Meldrum, P.I., Kuras, O., Ogilvy, R.D., Aumonier, J., Bailey, E., Griffiths, N., Matthews, B., Penn, S., and Wardrop, D., (2011). Characterising Sand and Gravel Deposits Using Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT): Case Histories from England and Wales. in Hunger, E. and Walton, G. (Eds.) Proceedings of the 16th Extractive Industry Geology Conference, EIG Conferences Ltd, pp. 166-172
  12. Haeni F.P.(1995). Application of surface-geophysical methods to investigations of sand and gravel aquifers in the glaciated north eastern United States. Regional Aquifer-System Analysis—Northeast Glacial Valleys. U.S. Geological Survey. pp 1–70.
  13. Short K.C. and Stauble A.J. (1967), Outline of the geology of the Niger Delta. AAPG Bull. 51: pp761-779
  14. Telford, W. M., L. P. Geldart, and R. E. Sheriff, (1990), Applied geophysics: Cambridge University Press. Pp 13-357
  15. Urish D. W. (1981). Electrical resistivity –hydraulic conductivity relationships in glacial outwash aquifers. Water Resources Research, 17: pp 1401-1408
  16. Umar H., RahmanY., Abdul R. S. and Mohd S. A. (2006). Determination of Groundwater Aquifer and Marine Clay Layer of the Alluvial Quaternary Deposits of Beruas and Bula Formation. Geophysics. 5(3): pp 6-24
  17. Sikander, A. Bakhsh, M. Arshad and T. Rana (2010). The Use of Vertical Electric Sounding Resistivity Method for the Location of Low Salinity Groundwater for Irrigation in Chaj and Rana Doabs,” Environmental Earth Sciences, Vol. 60, No. 5, pp. 1113-1129. doi:10.1007/s12665-009-0255-6
  18. Kelly, (1977). Geoelectric Sounding for Estimating Aquifer Hydraulic Conductivity, Ground Water, Vol. 15, No. 6, pp. 420-424. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6584.1977.tb03189.x
  19. Desmond, E., Egobueze, F., & Omonefe, F. (2019). Determination of Flood Hazard Zones Using Geographical Information Systems and Remote Sensing Techniques: A Case Study in Part Yenagoa Metropolis. Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, 21(1), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v21i130116
  20. Francis Omonefe, Edeye Ejaita, and Eteh Desmond Rowland (2020). Lithological Investigation at Tombia and Opolo Using Vertical Electrical Soundings and Pseudo Tomogram (IJLTEMAS) Volume IX, Issue I, January 2020 | ISSN 2278-2540.

For Conference & Paper Publication​

UIJRT Publication - International Journal