UIJRT » United International Journal for Research & Technology

Shade Effects with Potential NPK Responses on Coconut Seedlings in Tropical Agroforestry Practices

Khairol Ismail, Mohammad Asyraf Husin, and Mohd Fahimee Jaapar

Total Views / Downloads: 19 

Cite ➜

Ismail, K., Husin, M.A. and Jaapar, M.F., 2021. Shade Effects with Potential NPK Responses on Coconut Seedlings in Tropical Agroforestry Practices. United International Journal for Research & Technology (UIJRT), 2(10), pp.93-97.


The experiment was carried out in an experimental plot of 32 years old coconut palm of the local Malayan Tall cultivar which later on represents the different rate of light intensities canopy at MARDI Bagan Datuk, Perak. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the responses of new coconut seedlings planted under different shade intensities and different rates of NPK application. 9 months old Malayan Brown Dwarf (MBD) seedlings were selected and planted in between the old palms (which act as a shade canopy) in the same row by using the north-south direction of planting rows. The treatments were including 4 levels of shade which represented by different old palm canopy of light intensities at 100, 75, 50, and 25 percent(%) and with 4 different rates of NPK at 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 kg/palm including control at 0 kg/palm. Data collection parameters were collected including light intensity, chlorophyll content, plants height, and stem girth, number of fronds, and width of leaves. All data were subjected to variance analysis (ANOVA) and means values were compared with Duncan Multiple Range Test using SAS statistical analysis. The results obtained from all the parameters indicated that a significant relation between NPK rates and shade intensities levels. It found that 25% of old palm shading canopies showed significantly the highest light intensity at 458 µmol m−2s−1 compared to others while 100% of shade level gave the best chlorophyll reading. The integrated nutrient management of supplying 4.5 kg/palm (F4) recommended along with the C4 shade level showing the significant difference at (p<0.05) of plant height and the number of fronds. The growth parameters of the stem girth and width of leaves show significantly highest in number at F2 of NPK supplying with C4 of shade level compared to other treatments. The growth performance of coconuts seedlings at different NPK rates and different shade levels also showed significantly different from each other which it can be concluded that the increase of shade level needs for the higher amount of NPK for best growth performance of seedlings.

Keywords: Coconut seedlings, NPK responses, Shade palm canopy, Plant growth.


  1. Belskt, A.J. (1992) Effects of trees on nutritional quality of understory gramineous forage in tropical savannas. Tropical Grasslands, 26, 12–20. CIAT (Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical) (1982) Informe CIAT 1982. CIAT, Cali, Colombia.
  2. Herrick, J.D., Thomas, R.B., 1999. Effects of CO2enrichment on the photosynthetic light response of sun and shade leaves of canopy sweet gum trees (Liquid ambarstyraciflua) in a forest ecosystem. Tree Physiol. 19, 779–786.
  3. Humphreys, L.R. (1994) Tropical Pastures: Their Role in Sustainable Agriculture. (Longman Scientific c and Technical/ John Wiley and Sons, Inc.: New York).
  4. Kaiser, D. E., Lamb, J. A., & Eliason, R. (2011). Fertilizer guidelines for agronomic crops in Minnesota.
  5. I and Mohammad. A. H. (2018). NPK Responses On Coconut Seedlings At The Variation Of Old Palm Canopy Strata. 6th Kuala Lumpur International Agriculture, Forestry and Plantation Conference, 24-25 April 2018, Hotel Bangi-Putrajaya, Malaysia
  6. I., Mohd. Hairy. Azwan. M. B. and Mohammad. Asyraf. H. (2019). Effects of Different Shade Levels and NPK Rates on the Growth and Vigor of Coconut at Premature Stage. Malaysian Society of Plant Physiology (MSPP) 2019, 27-29 August 2019, Ming Garden Hotel & Residence, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. pp 64
  7. Lambers, H., Chapin, F.S III and Pons, T.L. (1998) Plant Physiological Ecology. (Springer-Verlag: New York).
  8. Liyanage, D.V., 1950. Sex life of the coconut palm. Ceylon Coconut Q. 11 (2), 33–35.
  9. Liyanage, D.V., Wickramaratne, M.R.T., Jayasekara, C., 1988. Coconut breeding in Sri Lanka: a review. COCOS 6, 1–26.
  10. Pathmeswaran, C., Lokupitiya, E., Waidyarathne, K. P., & Lokupitiya, R. S. (2018). Impact of extreme weather events on coconut productivity in three climatic zones of Sri Lanka. European Journal of Agronomy96, 47-53.
  11. Ranasinghe, C. S., Kumarathunge, M. D. P., Jayaranjini, S., & De Costa, W. A. J. M. (2015). Photosynthetic irradiance response, canopy photosynthesis and their variation with canopy strata in tall and dwarf× tall coconut cultivars (Cocos nucifera L.). Scientia Horticulturae189, 175-183.
  12. Scholes, R.J. and Archer, S.R. (1997) Tree-grass interactions in savannas. Annual Review of Ecology & Systematic, 28,
  13. Wilson, J.R. (1996) Shade-stimulated growth and nitrogen uptake by pasture grasses in a subtropical environment. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 47, 1075–1093.
  14. Wilson, J.R. and Wild, D.W.M. (1991) Improvement of nitrogen nutrition under shading. ACIAR Proceedings No. 32, Forages for Plantations Crops, Bali, 1990. pp. 77–82.
  15. Wilson, J.R. and Wild, D.W.M. (1995) Nitrogen availability and grass yield under shade environments. ACIAR Proceedings No. 64, Integration of Ruminants in Plantation Systems in South East Asia, North Sumatra, 1994.pp. 42–48.
  16. Wilson, J.R., Catchpole, V.R. and Weir, K.L. (1986) Stimulation of growth and nitrogen uptake by shading a rundown green panic pasture on clay soil. Tropical Grasslands, 20, 134–143.
  17. Wilson, J.R., Hill, K., Cameron, D.M. and Shelton, H.M. (1990). The growth of Paspalum notatum under the shade of a Eucalyptus grandis plantation or in full sun. Tropical Grasslands, 24, 24–28.

For Conference & Paper Publication​

UIJRT Publication - International Journal