UIJRT » United International Journal for Research & Technology

Cathodic Protection of Aluzinc coated, Galvanized and Stainless Steels in Ijegun Seawater using Aluminium as Sacrificial Anode

Total Views / Downloads: 118 

Cite ➜

Owoeye, F.T., Adetunji, O.R., Kuye, S.I. and Bada, B.S., 2020. Cathodic Protection of Aluzinc coated, Galvanized and Stainless Steels in Ijegun Seawater using Aluminium as Sacrificial Anode. United International Journal for Research & Technology (UIJRT), 2(2), pp.81-92.


Cathodic protection is an electrochemical method of controlling corrosion on metallic structures which are in electrolytes. Safety and environmental aspects of corrosion are difficult to quantify in terms of costs but are known to have put people’s lives at risk hence this research aimed at the study of cathodic protection of aluzinc coated, galvanized and stainless steels with aluminium as the sacrificial anode in Ijegun seawater. The samples (300 x 50 x 2 mm3) were connected independently to the sacrificial anodes of Al with cables and then submerged in Ijegun for 16 weeks. All samples were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope. The corrosion rates were determined by gravimetric and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic methods. The gravimetric method results showed the corrosion rate of protected samples: stainless, galvanized and aluzinc coated steels were 2.54E-4, 4.84E-4 and 1.80E-3 mm/yr respectively while the control samples were 5.36E-4, 9.55E-4 and 3.97E-3 mm/yr in that order. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopic results obtained for protected stainless, galvanized and aluzinc coated steels were (629.351, 685.575), (268.786, 253.498) and (216.3464, 58.380) Ω respectively while the control samples were (527.417, 299.112), (188.150, 91.259) and (66.3077, 24.022) Ω in that order. The scanning electron microscope results showed thicker masses on unprotected than protected samples. The methods used revealed that, stainless steel had the highest resistance to corrosion while aluzinc coated steel had the least resistance. Conclusively, cathodic protection method using sacrificial anode of aluminum is effective in protecting steels in marine environment.

Keywords: Al as sacrificial anode, cathodic protection, EIS, gravimetric evaluation, potentiodynamic polarization, steels.


  1. Adetunji, O. R., Obakhavbaye, R. A., Ajileye, A. K.. and Adesusi, O.M. (2019). Cathodic Protection of Underground Mild Steel Pipes by Impressed Current using Solar Cells as Rectifier. Journal of the Nigerian Academy of Engineering, 2, pp. 12-2.
  2. Anees, U.M., Shahreer, A. and Ismaeel, A. (1999). Corrosion Behavior of Steels in Gulfseawater Environment. Paper presented at the WSTA 4th Gulf Conference, Bahrain, published in Desalination 123, pp. 205-213.
  3. Arif, M.A., Agung, B., Suharyo, O.S. and Pratisna, P. (2018). The Effect of Protective Coatings using L-5A Type toward Corrosion Rate on Mild Steel Grade a Material (Case Study in Indonesia Warship). Journal of Material Sciences & Engineering 7, p. 4.
  4. Baeckmann, W.V., Schenk, W. and Prinz, W. ed. (1997). Handbook of Cathodic Corrosion Protection. 3rd Edition, Texas: Gulf Publishing Company, Houston.
  5. Hajar, H.M., Zulkifli, F., Suriani, M.G., Mohd, S. and Wan Nik,W.B. (2016). Lawsonialnermis Extract Enhances Performance of Corrosion Protection of Coated Mild Steel in Seawater. MATEC Web of Conferences 7 01091.
  6. Harvey, P.H. (1995). Atlas of Polarization Diagrams for Naval Materials in Seawater, Carderock Division, Naval Surface Warfare Centre.
  7. James, B. (2000). Corrosion and Cathodic Protection Theory. Bushman and Associates, Inc. Kuang, F., Zhang, J., Zou, C., Shi, T., Wang, Y., Zhang, S. and Xu, H. 2010. Electrochemical Methods for Corrosion Monitoring. Recent Patents on Corrosion Science,                          Medina, Ohio 44256 USA. 2, pp. 34-39.
  8. Lana, L.W., Sue, I.M. and Raúl, B.R. (2006). Methods to Calculate Corrosion Rates for Alloy 22 from Polarization Resistance Experiments. 2006 ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Division Conference. Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. PVP2006-ICPVT11-93421.
  9. Lavanya, M., Murthy, V.X. and Rao, P. (2018). Electrochemical Investigation of Erosion-corrosion Behavior of 6061 Aluminum Alloy in Marine Environment. Tribology in Industry, 40(4): pp. 552-564, DOI: 10.24874/ti.2018.40.04.04
  10. Möller, H., Boshoff, E.T. and Froneman, H. (2006). The Corrosion Behaviour of a Low Carbon Steel in Natural and Synthetic Seawaters. The Journal of South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. 106, pp. 585-592.
  11. Nestor, P. 2004. Electrochemistry and Corrosion Science. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  12. Neville, A., Reyes, M. and Xu, H. (2002). Examining corrosion effects and corrosion/erosion interactions on metallic materials in aqueous slurries. Tribology International, 35(10): pp. 643-650, doi: 10.1016/S0301-679X(02)00055-5.
  13. Oloruntoba, D.T., Oluwole, O.O. and Oguntade, E.O. (2009). Comparative study of Corrosion behavior of galvanized steel and coated Al 3103 roofing sheets in carbonate and chloride environments. Materials and Design, 30, pp. 1371-1376.
  14. Owoeye, F.T., Adetunji, O.R., Omotosho, A., Azodo, A.P. and Aiyedun, P.O. (2020). Investigation of corrosion performance of aluminum and zinc alloys in three acidic media. Engineering Reports. https://doi.org/10.1002/eng2.12103
  15. Padilla, V. and Alfantazi, A. (2014). Corrosion film breakdown of galvanized steel in sulphate–chloride solutions, Construction and Building Materials, 66, pp. 447-457.
  16. Rajappa, S.K., Venkatesha, T.V. and Praveen, B.M. (2008). Chemical treatment of zinc surface and its corrosion inhibition studies. Bull. Mater. Sci., Indian Academy of Sciences. 31, pp. 37–41.
  17. Rashid, K.T. (2009). Effect of Mixing Speed and Solution Temperature on Cathodic Protection Protective Current Density of Carbon Steel using Magnesium as Sacrificial Anode. Engineering and Technology Journal, 27, p. 8.
  18. Ramezanzadeh, B., Attar, M. M. and Farzam, M. (2010). Corrosion performance of a hot-dip galvanized steel treated by different kinds of conversion coatings. Surface & Coatings Technology, 205, pp. 874-884.
  19. Ross, T.K., Wood, G.C. and Mahmud, I.J. (1996). The Anodic Behavior of Iron Carbon Alloy in Moving Acid Media. Journal of Electrochemical Society, 113 p. 334.
  20. Slaiman, Q. J. M., and Hasan, B.O. (2010). Study on Corrosion Rate of Carbon Steel Pipe under Turbulent Flow Conditions. The Candian Journal of Chemical. Engineering, p. 88.
  21. Volkan, C. (2013). Cathodic Protection. Industrial Solutions for Protecting against Corrosion. Scrivener Publishing LLC. John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
  22. Yan, J.F., Pakalapati, S.N., Nguyen, T.V. and White, R.E. (1992). Mathematical Modeling of Cathodic Protection Using the Boundary Element Method with a nonlinear Polarization Curve. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, Inc., 139, p.7.

For Conference & Paper Publication​

UIJRT Publication - International Journal