UIJRT » United International Journal for Research & Technology

Workplace Spirituality and Knowledge Management in Higher Educational Institutions: An Empirical Study

Total Views / Downloads: 2,207 

Cite ➜

Lakshmi, P.M. and Das, V.T., 2021. Workplace Spirituality and Knowledge Management in Higher Educational Institutions: An Empirical Study. United International Journal for Research & Technology (UIJRT), 2(12), pp.18-32.


A confident and effective education system focuses not only on the economic, social and cultural growth of learning groups but also on spiritual growth. Reinforcing the spiritual component of faculty helps the learner to process knowledge in complexities and also to formulate a good philosophy towards life. The paper takes an analytical approach to understand and measure the impact of workplace spirituality (WS) on the process of knowledge management (KM) in higher educational institutions (HEIs). Workplace spirituality is contextually considered as mindset and system with which employees perceive meaningfulness at work through understanding dynamics of their inner life. Knowledge management at workplace, not much understandable concept by academic institutions, is studied deeply and hence highlighted its importance of its effective implementation in the paper. The core execution of KM depends on how employees perceive Knowledge Incubation, Deposition, Assessment, Application, Dissemination at workplace and knowledge sharing intention (KSI). A total of 610 faculty/lecturers, from selected HEIs participated in the survey. The study is among very few, to empirically investigate KM in academic institutions and the impact of WS on KM and KSI.  The results confirmed significant positive association of spirituality dimensions with core and effective practices of KM. WS found to be strong predictor of KSI. The findings highlight the necessity of suitable management intervention for integrating spiritual culture in HEIs and for fostering suitable strategies to accelerate KSI of faculty.

Keywords: Workplace Spirituality, Knowledge Management, Knowledge Sharing Intention, Reinforcement.


  1. Adawiyah, W. R., Shariff, M. N. M., Saud, M. B., & Mokhtar, S. S. M. (2011). Workplace Spirituality as a Moderator in the Relationship between Soft TQM and Organizational Commitment International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2(10)
  2. Ananad A & Singh M D; Understanding Knowledge Management: A Literature Review; International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, Vol 3 No. 2 Feb 2011.
  3. Ashmos, D. P., & Duchon, D. (2000). Spirituality at work: A conceptualization and measure. Journal of Management Inquiry, 9(2), 134–145.
  4. Barbara Friehs (2012), Knowledge Management in Educational Settings; https://www.researchgate.net/publication/255649004_Knowledge_Management_in_Educational_Settings
  5. Barney, J. (1991). Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17(1), 9
  6. Bejinaru, R. (2016) Knowledge Dynamics Impact on Intellectual Capital in Organizations’, Management Dynamics in the Knowledge Economy, 4(4), pp. 515–534. Available at: https://search.proquest.com/docview/1861825442?accountid=17242.
  7. Dhamdhere S.N., (2015). Importance of Knowledge Management in Higher Educational Institutes., Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, Jan 2015, Vol 15: Article 11.
  8. Drucker, P. F. (1999). Knowledge-worker productivity: The biggest challenge. The Knowledge Management Yearbook 2000–2001, 266–299
  9. Duchon, D., & Plowman, D. A. (2005). Nurturing the spirit at work: Impact on work unit performance. The Leadership Quarterly, 16(5), 807–833
  10. Garcia-Zamor, J. C. (2003). Workplace spirituality and organizational performance. Public Administration Review, 63(3), 355–363.
  11. Griffin, D. R. (1988). Spirituality and society: Postmodern visions. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
  12. International Center for Spirit at Work (ICSW): ICSW FAQs http://www.spiritatwork.org/index.php/faq
  13. Jurkiewicz, C. L., & Giacalone, R. A. (2004). A values framework for measuring the impact of workplace spirituality on organizational performance. Journal of Business Ethics, 49(2), 129–142.
  14. Khari, C., & Sinha, S. (2017). Impact of workplace spirituality on knowledge sharing intention: A conceptual framework. Journal of Human Values, 23(1), 27–39.
  15. Khari, C., & Sinha, S. (2018). Impact of workplace spirituality on learning commitment.
  16. Kinjerski V, Skrypnek BJ (2006) Measuring the intangible: development of the spirit at work scale. Paper presented at the Sixtyfifth Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management, Atlanta, GA, 16 pp. https://doi.org/10.5465/ambpp.2006.2289860
  17. Kinjierski VM, Skrypnek BJ (2004) Defining spirit at work: finding common ground. Journal of Organizational Change Management 17 (1): 26–42. https://doi.org/ 10.1108/09534810410511288
  18. Kolodinsky, R. W., Giacalone, R. A., & Jurkiewicz, C. L. (2008). Workplace values and outcomes: Exploring personal, organizational, and interactive workplace spirituality. Journal of Business Ethics, 81(2), 465–480.
  19. Kolodinsky, R. W., Giacalone, R. A., & Jurkiewicz, C. L. (2008). Workplace values and outcomes: Exploring personal, organizational, and interactive workplace spirituality. Journal of Business Ethics, 81(2), 465–480.
  20. Krishnakumar, S, and Neck, C.P (2002), “The “What”, “Why”, and “How: of Spirituality in the Workplace”, Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol 17, No.3, pp 153-164
  21. Lalatendu Kesari Jena, Sajeet Pradhan, Workplace spirituality and employee commitment: the role of emotional intelligence and organisational citizenship behavior in Indian organisations, Journal of Enterprise Information Management, https:// doi.org/10.1108/JEIM-10-2017-0144
  22. Maslow, A.H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50: 370-396.
  23. Milliman, J., Czaplewski, A. and Ferguson, J. (2003), Workplace spirituality and employee work attitude: an exploratory empirical assessment, Journal of Organizational Change Management, Vol. 16 No. 4, pp. 426-447.
  24. Mitroff, & Denton, E. A. (1999). A study of spirituality in the workplace. Sloan Management Review, Summer, 83-92.
  25. Mukherjee, S., S. Bhattacharjee, and S. S. Singha, 2019. Relationship between workplace spirituality and job satisfaction; International Journal of Economic Research, Dec 2019.
  26. Neal, Judith A. “Spirituality in Management Education: A Guide to Resources.” Journal of Management Education 21, no. 1 (1997), 121-139. Doi: 10.1177/105256299702100111. 26.
  27. Nevis, E.C., Dibella, A.J. and Gould, J.M. (1995), Understanding organizations as learning system, Sloan Management Review, Vol. 36 No. 2, pp. 73-85
  28. Nonaka, I. (1991). The Knowledge-Creating Company. Harvard Business Review, 96-104
  29. Nonaka, I. (1994). A dynamic theory of organizational knowledge creation. Organization Science, 5, 14-37.
  30. Nonaka, I., & Takeuchi, H. (1995). The knowledge-creating company: How Japanese companies create the dynamics of innovation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  31. Nonaka, I., & Takeuchi, H. (2019). The wise company: How companies create continuous innovation. Oxford University Press
  32. Pawar, B. S. (2009). Individual spirituality, workplace spirituality and work attitudes: An empirical test of direct and interaction effects. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 30(8), 759–777.
  33. Pawar, B. S. (2016). Workplace spirituality and employee well-being: An empirical examination. Employee Relations, 38(6), 975–994.
  34. Petchsawang, P., & Duchon, D. (2009). Measuring workplace spirituality in an Asian context. Human Resource Development International, 12(4), 459–468.
  35. Petchsawang, P., & McLean, G. N. (2017). Workplace spirituality, mindfulness meditation, and work engagement. Journal of Management, Spirituality and Religion, 14(3), 1–29.
  36. Piedmont, R. L. (1999). Does spirituality represent the sixth factor of personality? Spiritual transcendence and the five factor model. Journal of Personality, 67(6), 985–1013.
  37. Pradhan, R.K., Jena, L.K. and Soto, C.M. (2017), Development and Validation of Workplace Spirituality Scale: An Indian Perspective, Business: Theory and Practice, Vol. 18 No. 1, pp. 43-53. Pradhan, S., Pradhan, R. K. & Mazumder, S. (2012).Workplace Spirituality and Job Outcomes: A Review of Extant Literature and Agenda for Future Research. Siddhant-A Journal of Decision Making, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 1-10
  38. Rabindra Kumar Pradhan & Lalatendu Kesari Jena, 2016. Workplace spirituality and organisational commitment: Role of emotional intelligence among Indian banking professionals, Journal of Human Resource Management, Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Management, vol. 19(1), pages 13-23.
  39. Rahman, M. S. et al. (2015) ‘Trust and work place spirituality on knowledge sharing behaviour: Perspective from non-academic staff of higher learning institutions’, Learning Organization, 22(6), pp. 317–332. doi: 10.1108/TLO05-2015-0032.
  40. Rego, A. and Cunha, M. P. e (2008) ‘Workplace spirituality and organizational commitment: An empirical study’, Journal of Organizational Change Management, 21(1), pp. 53–75.
  41. Riege, A. (2005), Three dozen knowledge-sharing barriers managers must consider, Journal of Knowledge Management, Vol. 9 No. 3, pp. 18-35.
  42. Rocha, R., & Pinheiro, P. (2021). Can Organizational Spirituality Contribute to Knowledge Management? Management Dynamics in the Knowledge Economy. 9(1), 107-121, DOI 10.2478/mdke-2021-0008 ISSN: 2392-8042 (online)
  43. Romli, N. M. a. U. (2012). Modelling workplace spirituality and teaching effectiveness for academician in malaysia international journal of business and management studies,
  44. Rowley, J. (2006) ‘What do we need to know about wisdom?’, Management Decision, 44(9), pp. 1246–1257. doi: 10.1108/00251740610707712.
  45. Rowley, J. and Slack, F. (2009) ‘Conceptions of wisdom’, Journal of Information Science, 35(1), pp. 110–119. doi: 10.1177/0165551508092269.
  46. Rowley, J.(2000). Is higher education ready for knowledge management? International Journal of Education Management
  47. Saks, A. M. (2011). Workplace spirituality and employee engagement. Journal of Management, Spirituality & Religion, 8(4), 317-340
  48. Senge, P. (1990). The fifth discipline: the art and practice of the learning organization. New York: Doubleday.
  49. Sharma, S. (1999). Corporate Gita: Lessons for management, administration and leadership. Journal of Human Values, 5(2), 103–123.
  50. Skender & Karci , 2013. Workplace Spirituality in Higher Education, Bender Journal of Humanities; Vol 1 Issue 2, Winter 2013.
  51. Srinivas, K.M. (1998). Spirituality-at-work in the land of dollar god. Journal of Human Values, 4(1), 45–64.
  52. van den Hooff, B. and De Ridder, J.A. (2004), Knowledge sharing in context: the influence of organizational commitment, communication climate and CMC use on knowledge sharing, Journal of Knowledge Management, Vol. 8 No. 6, pp. 117-130.
  53. Wang, S., & Noe, R. A. (2010). Knowledge sharing: A review and directions for future research. Human Resource Management Review, 20(2), 115–131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2009.10.00
  54. Wang, S., & Noe, R. A. (2010). Knowledge sharing: A review and directions for future research. Human Resource Management Review, 20(2), 115–131.
  55. White, J. (2001). Interdependence: The core of a Buddhist perspective on business ethics. Philosophy Documentation Center. : Charlottesville VA
  56. Yang, J. (2007), The impact of knowledge sharing on organizational learning and effectiveness, Journal of Knowledge Management, Vol. 11 No. 2.

For Conference & Paper Publication​

UIJRT Publication - International Journal