UIJRT » United International Journal for Research & Technology

University Students’ Knowledge at Determining Fake News: A Comparative Analysis

Lester N. Linsangan, Jomell M. Santiago and Djoanna Marie P. Mataga

Total Views / Downloads: 78 

Cite ➜

Linsangan, L.N., Santiago, J.M. and Mataga, D.M.P., 2021. University Students’ Knowledge at Determining Fake News: A Comparative Analysis. United International Journal for Research & Technology (UIJRT), 2(8), pp.48-56.


The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge of the respondents about fake news. Also, to determine how they distinguish the facts from fake news and the relationship of their socio-demographic profile to their knowledge about fake news. A descriptive research design and purposive sampling were used. A questionnaire was utilized to collect data which was composed of the profile, questions regarding their knowledge about fake news, their perception on how they distinguish fact from fake news and their source of knowledge. Permission to conduct and informed consent was obtained. Data were analyzed using various statistical tools. The majority of the respondents had good knowledge about fake news. They agree with all the statements regarding how they distinguish fact from fake and their main source of knowledge of fake news is social media. The relationship between their general average to their knowledge and how they distinguish fact from fake was significant. Therefore, an information dissemination campaign against fake news should be done to inform those vulnerable groups especially the young people on how to easily identify the fact from the fake.

Keywords: Fake news, facts, social media.


  1. Allen, J., Howland, B., Mobius, M., Rothschild, D., & Watts, D. J. (2020). Evaluating the fake news problem at the scale of the information ecosystem. Science Advances, 6(14), eaay3539. Retrieve from https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/6/14/eaay3539
  2. Anderson, J. Even social media-savvy teens can’t spot a fake news story. Quartz 2017; Available from: https://qz.com/927543/even-socialmedia-savvy-teens-cant-spot-a-fake-news-story/.
  3. Barthel, M., Mitchell, A., and Holcomb, J. 2016. “Many Americans Believe Fake News Is Sowing Confusion,” Pew Research Center (15).
  4. Belova, G., & Georgieva, G. (2018, June). Fake news as a threat to national security. In International Conference KNOWLEDGE-BASED Organization (Vol. 24, No. 1, pp. 19-22). Sciendo.
  5. Carter-Ruck (2018) | Solicitors | Carter-Ruck. https://www.carter-ruck.com/images/uploads/documents/CR_FakeNews_AuthenticViews.pdf
  6. Dezenzio, A. (2018, September 18). The importance of the news media in today’s world. Medium. Retreive from https://tonydezenzio.medium.com/the-importance-of-the-news-media-in-todays-world-ae5edf8163fd
  7. Dimoka, A., Banker, R. D., Benbasat, I., Davis, F. D., Dennis, A. R., Gefen, D., Gupta, A., Ischebeck, A., Kenning, P. H., and Pavlou, P. A. 2012. “On the Use of Neurophysiological Tools in Is Research: Developing a Research Agenda for Neurois,” MIS Quarterly (36:3).
  8. Domonoske, C. Students Have ‘Dismaying’ Inability to Tell Fake News from Real, Study Finds. Natl. Public Radio 2016. Available online: https://n.pr/3mvY3uB (accessed on 18 August 2020).
  9. Explained: What is fake news? | Social media and filter bubbles. (2020, March 2). Webwise.ie. https://www.webwise.ie/teachers/what-is-fake-news/
  10. Funke, Daniel and Flamini, Daniela. (2019, August 14). A guide to anti-misinformation actions around the world. Poynter. https://www.poynter.org/ifcn/anti-misinformation-actions/#philippines
  11. Gottfried, J., and Shearer, E. 2016. News Use across Social Medial Platforms 2016. Pew Research Center.
  12. Hamblin, J. (2014). It’s everywhere, the Clickbait. The Atlantic. November 11. http://www.theatlantic.com/entertainment/archive/2014/11/clickbait-what-is/382545/
  13. How to spot real and fake news: Critically appraising information. (n.d.). Management Training and Leadership Training – Online. https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/fake-news.htm
  14. How to spot fake news. (n.d.). University Library. https://library.upm.edu.ph/node/110
  15. Jane Haskins, Esq. (2019, August 28). Fake news: What laws are designed to protect. LegalZoom: Start a Business, Protect Your Family: LLC, Incorporate, Wills, Trademark, Legal Advice. https://www.legalzoom.com/articles/fake-news-what-laws-are-designed-to-protect
  16. Janetzko, D. (2017). Social bots and fake news as (not) seen from the viewpoint of digital education frameworks. MedienPädagogik: Zeitschrift für Theorie und Praxis der Medienbildung, 61-80.
  17. Klein, D. O., & Wueller, J. R. (2018). Fake news: A legal perspective. Australasian Policing, 10(2), 11
  18. Klinger, L., and K. McBride. 2016. “Stop Calling Every News Article Clickbait.” Poynter, February 22. http://www.poynter.org/2016/clickbait/397841/.
  19. Lewandowsky, S., Ecker, U. K., Seifert, C. M., Schwarz, N., & Cook, J. (2012). Misinformation and its correction: Continued influence and successful debiasing. Psychological science in the public interest, 13(3), 106-131. Retreive from https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1529100612451018 and https://factcheckni.org/articles/what-is-fact-checking-and-why-is-it-important/
  20. Lewandowsky, S., Ecker, U. K., & Cook, J. (2017). Beyond misinformation: Understanding and coping with the “post-truth” era. Journal of applied research in memory and cognition, doi:10.1016/j.jarmac.2017.07.008
  21. Marchi, R. (2012). With Facebook, blogs, and fake news, teens reject journalistic “objectivity”. Journal of Communication Inquiry, 242-262.
  22. Matsa, K. E., & Shearer, E. (2018, September). News use across social media platforms 2018, Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.journalism.org/2018/09/10/news-useacross-social-media-platforms-2018/
  23. McClure, Laura (2017). Retrieved from http://blog.ed.ted.com/2017/01/12/how-to-tellfake-news-from-real-news/.
  24. National Literacy Trust. (2017). Fake news and critical literacy The final report of the Commission on Fake News and the Teaching of Critical Literacy in Schools. https://cdn.literacytrust.org.uk/media/documents/Fake_news_and_critical_literacy_-_final_report.pdf
  25. Nielsen, R.K., Graves, L.: News you don’t believe”: audience perspectives on fake news. Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism (2017). https://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/ourresearch/news-you-dont-believe-audience-perspectives-fake-news
  26. Ofcom (2017). Children and parents: Media use and attitudes report. Southwark, London: Ofcom. Retrieved from https://www.ofcom.org.uk/research-and-data/media-literacy-research/childrens/children-parents-2017
  27. Paul, K. (2018, October 25). False news stories are 70% more likely to be retweeted on Twitter than true ones. MarketWatch. https://www.marketwatch.com/story/fake-news-spreads-more-quickly-on-twitter-than-real-news-2018-03-08
  28. Quilinguing, Khalil Ismael Michael G. (2019, September 28). The problem with fake news: UP experts speak on the impact of disinformation on politics, society and democracy. University of the Philippines. Retrieve from https://www.up.edu.ph/the-problem-with-fake-news-up-experts-speak-on-the-impact-of-disinformation-on-politics-society-and-democracy/
  29. Research guides: Fake news: Why do people fall for fake news? (1003). https://libguides.tru.ca/fakenews/falling
  30. Reveal’s guide to spotting fake news. (2017, May 16). Reveal. https://revealnews.org/about-us/reveals-guide-to-spotting-fake-news/
  31. Roozenbeek, J., & Van Der Linden, S. (2019). The fake news game: actively inoculating against the risk of misinformation. Journal of Risk Research, 22(5), 570-580. Retrieve from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/ 10.1080/13669877.2018.1443491
  32. Santiago, J. M., & Cajucom, R. L. (2020). Knowledge about COVID-19 among university students before the implementation of the enhanced community quarantine in Philippines. International Journal of Public Health, 9(4), 321-328.
  33. Shao, C., Ciampaglia, G. L., Varol, O., Flammini, A., and Menczer, F. (2017). The spread of fake news by social bots. Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.
  34. Shearer, E. (2018, December). Social media outpaces print newspapers in the U.S. as a news source, Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/ 2018/12/10/social-media-outpaces-print-newspapers-in-the-u-s-as-a-news-source/
  35. Silverman, C. 2016. “This Analysis Shows How Viral Fake Election News Stories Outperformed Real News on Facebook,” Buzzfeed News (16).
  36. Soll, J.(2016).The long and brutal history of fake news, Politico, Retrieved from www.politico.com/magazine/story/2016/12/fake-news-history-long-violent-214535
  37. Spicer, R.N., 2018. Lies, Damn Lies, Alternative Facts, Fake News, Propaganda, Pinocchios, Pants on Fire, Disinformation, Misinformation, Post-Truth, Data, and Statistics. Springer International Publishing, Cham. pp. 1–31. URL: https://doi.org/10.1007/ 978-3-319-69820-5_1, doi:10.1007/978-3-319-69820-5_1.
  38. Tarran, B. (2017). Why facts are not enough in the fight against fake news. Significance, 14(5), 6-7. doi:10.1111/j.1740-9713.2017.01066.x
  39. Turner, C. (2016, December 22). The classroom where fake news fails. National Public Radio. Podcast retreived from http://www.npr.org/sections/ed/2016/12/22/505432340/ the-classroom-where-fake-news-fails and https://www.amle.org/BrowsebyTopic/WhatsNew/WNDet/TabId/270/ArtMID/888/ArticleID/848/Fact-or-Fiction-Fake-News-and-its-Impact-on-Education.aspx
  40. Warner-Søderholm, G., Bertsch, A., Sawe, E., Lee, D., Wolfe, T., Meyer, J., Engel, J., & Fatilua, U. N. (2018). Who trusts social media? Computers in Human Behavior, 81, 303–315. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.12.026
  41. Vance, A., Jenkins, J. L., and Anderson, B. B. 2018. “Tuning out Security Warnings: A Longitudinal Examination of Habituation through Fmri, Eye Tracking, and Field Experiments,” MIS Quarterly (42:2), pp. 355-380
  42. 403 forbidden. (n.d.). FactCheck.org – A Project of The Annenberg Public Policy Center. https://www.factcheck.org/2016/11/how-to-spot-fake-news/

For Conference & Paper Publication​

UIJRT Publication - International Journal