During the modular distance learning due to the COVID-19 outbreak, students have consistently perceived science as a difficult subject and struggled to work on their modules independently, and some developed anxiety toward learning science. Most of the students also relied on the help of their parents and older siblings for the facilitation of learning and guidance in answering their modules. These circumstances lessen their positive attitudes toward science learning. This quantitative study sought to investigate whether self-directed learning readiness and perceived social support determine the student’s attitudes toward science in distance learning. The regression analysis was employed to identify the level of association between the two independent variables and the dependent variable. Self-directed learning readiness and perceived social support both have significant relationships with students’ attitudes toward science in distance learning. However, only perceived social support has been proven to be a determinant of students’ attitudes toward science in distance learning. The study’s findings may assist in planning appropriate interventions and activities that will be appropriate to the needs of the students regarding self-directed learning and perceived social support for the improvement of the modular distance learning implementation.