UIJRT » United International Journal for Research & Technology

Caring, Learning, Adaptable and Sustainable School (Class) Building: A Mixed Use School Building

Rafael J. Balicano

Total Views / Downloads: 110 

Cite ➜

Balicano, R.J., 2021. Caring, Learning, Adaptable and Sustainable School (Class) Building: A Mixed Use School Building. United International Journal for Research & Technology (UIJRT), 2(7), pp.151-174.

Abstract

This study assessed the status of the school building in the Province of Sorsogon. Specifically, it seek answer to the following questions: 1. what is the status of school building along the identified variables (caring, learning, adaptable and sustainable) as: Learning, Evacuation and Quarantine facility? 2. What are the problems met along the identified variables (safety, adequacy, health protection, sustainability) as; Learning, Evacuation and Quarantine facility? 3. What school building design and policy intervention can be proposed based on the results of the study? Findings of the study provided baseline data needed for the assessment of the status of school building along the identified variables (caring, learning, adaptable and sustainable). There were forty (40) respondents in the Province of Sorsogon and three (3) architect’s expert in their own field that reviewed and evaluated the proposed school building plan of the study. The descriptive method was used, with the self-made questionnaire as the main research instrument. The data were presented, analyzed and interpreted with the use of statistical tools such as the frequency count, ranking, percentage distribution, weighted mean and average mean. The study revealed that the following findings that the status of school building in overall weighted mean in terms of caring with 3.28; learning, 3.14; adaptability 3.31; and sustainability 3.10, were all rated as equivalent to “good” as to learning facility. As to evacuation facility an overall weighted mean of 3.01 for caring; learning 2.78; adaptability 3.18; and sustainability 2.81, all with equivalent rating of “good”. As to quarantine facility, an overall weighted mean of 3.08 for caring; learning 3.06; adaptability 3.15 and sustainability 2.80, all with equivalent rating of “good”. It also revealed the problems met in school buildings  as learning facility in terms of safety is that there is no adequate emergency exit and fire safety equipment with a sum of rank of 88; adequacy is that the students are overcrowded using the toilet rooms (ratio of students per toilet fixtures such as water closet, lavatory and urinals not met) with a sum of rank of 97; health protection is that there is no ramp provided in every floor level with a sum of rank 97; and sustainability with a sum of rank of 105 is that it has no alternative supply of water (rain water collector). The problems met in school buildings  as evacuation facility in terms of safety is that there has no adequate emergency exits and fire safety equipment with a sum of rank of 119; adequacy is that evacuees are overcrowded in a toilet and bath rooms (ratio of evacuees per toilet fixtures such as water closet, lavatory, urinals and showers not met) with a sum of rank of 103; health protection is that it is not equipped with the minimum health standard requirements for an evacuation facility with a sum of rank 129; and sustainability with a sum of rank of 114 is that it has no alternative supply of electricity (solar panel source or standby generator). The problems met in school buildings  as quarantine facility in terms of safety is that there is no separate ingress and egress for health workers and quarantined persons with a sum of rank of 152; adequacy is that that quarantined persons were overcrowded in a toilet and bath rooms (ratio of quarantined persons per toilet fixtures such as water closet, lavatory, urinals and showers not met) with a sum of rank of 114; health protection is that it is not equip with the minimum health standard requirements for a quarantine facility with a sum of rank 118; and sustainability with a sum of rank of 138 is that it has no alternative supply of water (rain water collector). Based on the findings, the following conclusions are drawn: The status of school building along caring, learning, adaptable and sustainable as to learning, evacuation and quarantine facility is “good”. The problems met along the identified variables (safety, adequacy, health protection, sustainability) are: As Learning Facility: as to safety, there is no adequate emergency exit and fire safety equipment; as to adequacy, the students are overcrowded using the toilet rooms (ratio of students per toilet fixtures such as water closet, lavatory and urinals not met); as to health protection, there is no ramp provided in every floor level; and as to Sustainability, it has no alternative supply of water (rain water collector). As Evacuation Facility: as to safety, there has no adequate emergency exits and fire safety equipment; as to adequacy, that the evacuees are overcrowded in a toilet and bath rooms (ratio of evacuees per toilet fixtures such as water closet, lavatory, urinals and showers not met); as to health protection, it is not equip with the minimum health standard requirements for an evacuation facility; and as to Sustainability, some school building has no alternative supply of water (rain water collector).

As Quarantine Facility: as to safety, there is no separate ingress and egress for health workers and quarantined persons; as to adequacy, quarantined persons are overcrowded in a toilet and bath rooms (ratio of quarantined persons per toilet fixtures such as water closet, lavatory, urinals and showers not met); as to health protection, it is not equip with the minimum health standard requirements for a quarantine facility; and as to Sustainability, it has no alternative supply of water (rain water collector). The study recommended the followings: The Philippine government may construct one (1) CLASS building in each municipality  of DepEd campus in the Province of Sorsogon and the four campuses of the Sorsogon State University; the DepEd and SSU may conduct assessment and evaluation of existing multi- storey school buildings for possible rehabilitation/ improvement to fit for evacuation and quarantine facility use; this study may answer the call of the President and Vice President of the Philippines for a designed building fit for evacuation and quarantine facility; this study may be the answer to the call of the education community, evacuation and quarantine users for a safe, adequate, healthy and sustainable efficient school building; this research may be a pilot study that can be replicated in other province of the Philippines and to other countries; feedback may be sent to the researcher for possible modification of the design; and further studies may be made on the following concerns: a demountable class chairs that can be stack vertically to save spaces during storage, a demountable beds that can be stack or filed to save spaces during storage and to conduct inventory of school building that may be rehabilitated/ improved to fit for learning, evacuation and quarantine facility.

Keywords: Evacuation facility, Learning facility, Mixed use school building, Quarantine facility.

References

  1. Ramsey, Charles G and Harold R Sleeper. Architectural Graphics Standard
  2. De Chiara, Joseph and John Hancock Challender. Time Saver Standard for Building Types
  3. Revised National Building Code of the Philippines (PD 1096)
  4. Revised National Plumbing Code of the Philippines, National Master Plumbers of the Philippines.
  5. Revised Fire Code of the Philippines of 2008
  6. Burnette, Daarel II. Does Moving to a Brand New School Building Improve Student Learning? April 17, 2019
  7. Bari, Osman. CEBRA’s Mixed Use Smart School Proposes a Rethink of Russia’s Education System, April 09, 2017
  8. Akasah, Zainal Abidin, Sharifah Hamimah Shamsuddin, Ismael Abd Rahman and Maizam Alias. School Building Maintenance Strategy: A New Management Approach, Fundamental Research Grant from the Ministry of Higher Education, Volume No. 0255.
  9. Angelopoulos, Charalampos and Malcolm Cook. Natural Ventilation in Schools: window design and performance, September 2016, Conference: Proceedings of 6th Masters Conference: People and Buildings,: London, UK https://www.researchgate.net/publication/311470393_Natural_Ventilation_in_Schools_window_design_and_performance
  10. Appiah-Brempong, E., Harris, M.J., Newton, S. et al. Examining school-based hygiene facilities: a quantitative assessment in a Ghanaian municipality. BMC Public Health 18, 581 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-5491-9
  11. Barnum, Matt. The Pandemic is Spotlighting Longstanding Issues with America’s School Buildings, September 15, 2020 https://www.chalkbeat.org/2020/9/15/21438452/pandemic-schools-buildings-ventilation-repairs
  12. Buckingham, Caroline. RIBA Design and Build, Education Business, What makes a good school building? Accessed May 2, 2021, https://educationbusinessuk.net/features/what-makes-good-school-building
  13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID), Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology (DHCPP), Viral Special Pathogens Branch (VSPB)
  14. last reviewed: September 28, 2015 https://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/symptoms/index.html
  15. Daniel, Kurt. The Financial Effects of a Natural Disaster, April 17, 2020 https://www.investopedia.com/financial-edge/0311/the-financial-effects-of-a-natural-disaster.aspx
  16. De Jesus, Amado. Why we need Green Evacuation Centers
  17. Dickinson, Elizabeth Evitts, AIA. A Modern- Day Search for the Intersection of Safety and Beauty, Designing for Security http://www.architectmagazine.com/aia-architect/aiafeature/designing-for-security_o
  18. Fujieda, A., B.H. Pandey and S.Ando. Safe Schools to Reduce Vulnerability of Children to Earthquakes, The 14Th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, October 12-17, 2008, Beijing, China
  19. Greg Kats, Jeff Perlman and Sachin Jamadagni. National Review of Green Schools: Costs, Benefits, and Implications for Massachusetts A Report for the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative December 2005 https://www.brightpower.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/National-Review-of-Green-Schools-Costs-Benefits-and-Implications-for-Massachusetts.pdf
  20. Grout, Leah, Ameera Katar, Driss Ait Ouakrim, Jennifer A. Summers, Amanda Kvalsvig, Michael G. Baker, Tony Blakely, Nick Wilson. Estimating the Failure Risk of Quarantine Systems for Preventing COVID- 19 Outbreaks in Australia and New Zealand, Department of Public Health, University of Otago Wellington, New Zealand, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia, Ap-ril 28,2021. Guidance and Measures on Isolation Wards and Quarantine facilities, June 5, 2020.
  21. Heskey, Emile. How to Design School Building, eHow Contribiutorhttp://www.ehow.com/how_7926799_design-school-building.html?
  22. Hiromi Kawasaki, Satoko Yamasaki, Moshiur Rahman, Yoshihiro Murata, MikaIwasa and ChieTeramoto. 2019, Teachers-Parents Cooperation in Disaster Preparation when Schools become as Evacuation Centers
  23. Kats, Gregory. Center for Ecoliteracy, Green school Design: Better for Health and Education and more Cost Effective, June 29, 2009 https://www.ecoliteracy.org/article/green-school-design-better-health-and-educationand-more-cost-effective
  24. Lipsett, Anthea. Education Guardian 2007, Secondary School buildings ‘at Root of Problems’ http://www.theguardian.com/education/2007/jul/16/schools.architecture
  25. Live Science, All About History, Spanish flu: The Deadliest Pandemic in History, March 12, 2020 https://www.livescience.com/spanish-flu.html
  26. Live Science, How U.S. Cities Tried to Halt the Spread of the 1918 Spanish Flu, May 6, 2020 https://www.history.com/news/spanish-flu-pandemic-response-cities
  27. Mathewson, Tara García. How School Building, Classroom Design can Affect Learning, July 13, 2016 https://www.k12dive.com/news/how-school-building-classroom-design-can-affect-learning/422537/
  28. Mitchell, Coral and Larry Sackney. Building Schools, Building People: The School Principal’s Role in Leading a Learning Community, September 1, 2006
  29. Mohd Najib Mohd Salle, Mohd Zin Kandar and Siti Rasidah Md Sakip. Benchmarking for Energy Efficiency on School Buildings Design: A Review, Science Direct, June 23, 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877042816302233
  30. Nazhatulzalkis Jamaludin, Mohd Faris Khamidi, Suriani Ngah Abdul Wahab, Mustafa M.A. Indoor Thermal Environment in Tropical Climate Residential Building, published by EDP Sciences, 2014
  31. Ndejjo, R., Naggayi, G., Tibiita, R. et al. Experiences of persons in COVID-19 institutional quarantine in Uganda: a qualitative study. BMC Public Health 21, 482 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10519-z
  32. Nur Hidayahtuljamilah Ramli et al. A Comparative Study of Green School Guidelines, Science Direct https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877042812031886
  33. Pasalar, Celen. North Carolina University, The Meaning and Perception of School Buildings, BRIK Building Research Information Knowledgebase 2020
  34. Pathirana, Shakila; Asanka Rodrigo & Rangika Halwatura . Effect of Building Shape, Orientation, Window to Wall Ratios and Zones on Energy Efficiency and Thermal Comfort of Naturally Ventilated Houses in Tropical Climate, January 3, 2019, International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering volume 10, pages107–120(2019)
  35. Meily, Rene S.    Philippine Disaster Resilient Foundation,  ARISE Case Studies in Disaster Risk Management, 2016
  36. Pasalar, Celen. North Carolina University, The Meaning and Perception of School Buildings, BRIK Building Research Information Knowledgebase 2020
  37. Philippine Daily Inquirer, February 08, 2020 https://business.inquirer.net/289958/why-we-need-green-evacuation-centers
  38. Picus, Lawrence O. Overview, Maintenance and Modernization of School Facilities https://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/2394/School-Facilities.html
  39. Prakash, Nair, But Are They Learning? School Buildings–The Important Unasked Questions, Published April 3, 2002 issue of “Education Week.” https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED464479
  40. Polly Curtis. School buildings can Affect Learning, June 21, 2002, EducationGuardian.co.uk https://www.theguardian.com/education/2002/jun/21/schools.uk
  41. Radu, Sintia, The Top 5 Deadliest Disasters in 2019, Dec. 3, 2019, at 3:49 p.m. https://www.usnews.com/news/best-countries/slideshows/5-of-the-deadliest-natural-disasters-in-2019?slide=7
  42. Ramos RA et al. Rapid health assessments of evacuation centres in areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan. Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal, 2015, 6(Suppl 1):39–43. doi:10.5365/wpsar.2015.6.2.HYN_003
  43. Rainsaver Tank, 2021 http://www.weida.com.ph/products/rain-harvesting-system/rainsaver-tank/
  44. Rappler, Areas Under State of Calamity due to Typhoon Tisoy https://www.rappler.com/nation/246428-areas-state-calamity-typhoon-tisoy-december-2019
  45. [43] Rappler, Look: Over 100,000 People Remain in Evacuation Centers After Weekend Floods
  46. https://www.rappler.com/nation/209545-photo-residents-remain-evacuation-centers-habagat-august-2018
  47. Rappler, Singapore Extends Coronavirus Curbs as Cases Surge, April 21, 2020
  48. Robinson R.S. (2014) Purposive Sampling. In: Michalos A.C. (eds) Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-0753-5_2337
  49. Rosete, Mark Alfred. CDP Eyes School as Hub for Collaboration and Integrated Thinking in Local Resilience Building in Zamboanga, May 2019. https://www.cdp.org.ph/news-1/2019/05/29/School-as-a-hub-for-collaboration-and-integrated-thinking-in-local-resilience-building
  50. Royal College of Nursing, Health Protection https://www.rcn.org.uk/clinical-topics/public-health/health-protection
  51. Rueckert, Phineas. 10 Barriers to Education That Children Living in Poverty Face, August 13, 2019, https://www.globalcitizen.org/en/content/10-barriers-to-education-around-the-world-2/
  52. Santos, Kara. Philippines- Designing Defense Against Climate Change, Word Press, January 2011 http://hendrawanm.wordpress.com/2011/01/15/philippines-designing-defence-against-climate-change/
  53. Save the Children International (SCI). Limiting and Planning for Schools as Temporary Evacuation Centers in Emergencies, Asia Pacific Coalition for School Safety 2017
  54. Seville E, Vargo J.,(2015) Resilience to Earthquake Disasters. In: Beer M., Kougioumtzoglou I.A., Patelli E., Au SK. (eds) Encyclopedia of Earthquake Engineering. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-35344-4_339
  55. Sison, Marites. Inter Press Service, World Education Forum 2000, Scrounging Funds to Finance Public Schools in the Philippines http://www.unesco.org/education/wef/en-news/philippines.shtm
  56. Tria, Jose Z (2020). The COVID- 19 Pandemic Through the Lens of Education in the Philippines: The New Normal, International journal Pedagogical Development and Lifelong Learning, 1 (1), ep2001 https://doi.org/10.30935/ijpdll/8311
  57. Vinnitskaya, Irina. “Local Solutions: Floating Schools in Bangladesh” 25 Dec 2012. ArchDaily. Accessed 29 Oct 2014. http://www.archdaily.com/?p=307128
  58. Weeks, Katie. Report: Green Buildings Can Play Role in Disaster Preparedness http://www.architectmagazine.com/climate-change/report-green-buildings-can-play-role-in-disaster-preparedness.aspx
  59. Wilson Macha, Christopher Mackie, and Jessica Magaziner, Knowledge Analysts at WES, https://wenr.wes.org/2018/03/education-in-the-philippines
  60. US Green Building Council: https://www.usgbc.org/articles/what-green-school
  61. Kats, Gregory. Center for Ecoliteracy, Green school Design: Better for Health and Education and more Cost Effective, June 29, 2009: https://www.ecoliteracy.org/article/green-school-design-better-health-and-educationand-more-cost-effective.
  62. Nur Hidayahtuljamilah Ramli et al. A Comparative Study of Green School Guidelines, Science Direct, July 16, 2012. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877042812031886
  63. Vinnitskaya, Irina. “Local Solutions: Floating Schools in Bangladesh” 25 Dec 2012. ArchDaily. Accessed 29 Oct 2014. http://www.archdaily.com/?p=307128
  64. 2019 WebMD, Ebola Virus infection Slideshow WebMD Medical Reference Reviewed by Carol DerSarkissian on July 21, 2019 https://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/ebola-fever-virus-infection
  65. 8 Overall Building Condition and Student Achievement. National Reseach Council. 2007. Green Schools: Attributes for Health and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Doi:10.17226/11
  66. Action Steps for Implementing a Healthy School Environment http://www2.edc.org/makinghealthacademic/concept/actions_environment.asp
  67. AFP Channel News, ASIA. ‘Full Capacity Everywhere’: Manila Hospitals Struggle as Virus Surges, April 9, 2021 Aguilar, Krissy. Daily Inquirer, Climate Change must be Tackled as Urgently as COVID-19 Pandemic – Duterte, September 23, 2020 https://globalnation.inquirer.net/191085/comply-with-paris-agreement-as-countries-like-ph-suffer-climate-change-the-most
  68. [64] Agnelli, Fondazione. The New Report on School Building and Learning Spaces, November 27, 2019
  69. https://www.fondazioneagnelli.it/en/progetti/the-agnelli-foundations-report-on-school-construction
  70. Aguilar, Krissy. Inquirer, Quezon City issues guidelines for barangay-based quarantine facilities, August 23, 2020 https://newsinfo.inquirer.net/1325937/quezon-city-issues-guidelines-for-barangay-based-quarantine-facilities#ixzz6Vw9YeEdW
  71. Ambardekar, Nayana. October 17, 2018, Ebola Virus Infection
  72. Anadolu Agency. Indian Muslims turn Mosques, Schools into Covid Centres, April 30, 2021
  73. Arguelles, Mar, Inquirer Sorsogon Suspends Classes Over COVID-19 Threat March 15, 2020
  74. Ashley Crossman. January 24, 2020, Understanding Functionalist Theory
  75. ASIA, Philippines: A Country prone to Natural Disasters https://www.dw.com/en/philippines-a-country-prone-to-natural-disasters/a-17217404
  76. Atienza, Charissa Luci. Solon Presses Mandatory Evacuation Centers, November 7, 2020, https://mb.com.ph/2020/11/07/solon-presses-mandatory-evacuation-centers/
  77. BBC News. Covid-19 Pandemic: Tracking the Global Coronavirus Outbreak, October 5, 2020 https://www.bbc.com/news/world-51235105
  78. Bailey, John A. Building Condition and the Influence on Student Learning, April 1, 2017 https://spaces4learning.com/articles/2017/04/01/building-condition.aspx
  79. Bolido, Linda B. Philippine Daily Inquirer, Brigada Eskwela Focuses on School Sanitation, May 20, 2011 http://www.unicef.org/philippines/media_18750.html
  80. Bulacan to Use Hospital Extension Building As Quarantine Facility http://pageone.ph/bulacan-to-use-hospital-extension-building-as-quarantine-facility/
  81. Cabral, Maria Catalina E, Undersecretary for Planning and PPP, Department of Public Works and Highways, DPWH Programs and Projects on Disaster Resiliency, March 15, 2018
  82. Chua, Alicia Ivy L., Philippine Star, The Freeman, Quarantine Facility to Rise Tomorrow https://www.philstar.com/the-freeman/cebu-news/2020/04/02/2004989/quarantine-facility-rise-tomorrow
  83. Center for Disaster Preparedness, The Philippines Disaster Situation
  84. Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease), Years of Ebola Virus Disease Outbreaks
  85. Cepeda, Maria, Rappler, April 16, 2017 Aboitiz Eyes, Restoring the Glory of Gabaldon Buildings http://aboitizeyes.aboitiz.com/restoring-glory-gabaldon-buildings/
  86. CHED, CMO 32, s 2006
  87. Corona Virus: Cases Jump in Iran and Italy, March 7, 2020 https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east 51783242
  88. CPD Organization, Center for Disaster Prepareness, Beyond Health: Unity, Compassion, and Service, April 14, 2020 https://www.cdp.org.ph/news-1/2020/04/14/Beyond-Health-Unity-Compassion-and-Service
  89. Daniel, Kurt. The Financial Effects of a Natural Disaster, April 17, 2020 https://www.investopedia.com/financial-edge/0311/the-financial-effects-of-a-natural-disaster.aspx
  90. Delos Santos, Angelica S .A. Renewable Energy in the Philippines, Renewable Energy Management Bureau Department of Energy https://www.irena.org/ /media/Files/IRENA/Agency/Events/2016/Dec/12/Philippines-presentation.pdf?la=en&hash=DEC515661934EE45D38FB632E6985581802CF3C7
  91. Dictionaryhttps://www.dictionary.com/browse/mixed-use
  92. Com https://www.dictionary.com/browse/quarantine
  93. Disasters Displace More People Than Conflict and Violence, Relief Web, UNDDR, February 3, 2020, https://reliefweb.int/report/world/disaster-displacement-3-february-2020 DOH, Philippines https://www.doh.gov.ph/about-us
  94. EarthSky, Top 10 Countries Most at Risk fom Climate Change, July 30, 2012 http://earthsky.org/earth/top-10-countries-most-at-risk-from-climate-change
  95. Education System Profiles, Education in the Philippines, March 6, 2018 World education News + Report
  96. EHow, Education Editor, How to Build a School in the Third World Country http://www.ehow.com/how_7926799_design-school-building.html
  97. Emile Durkheim, Relevance to Sociology Today 3026482
  98. Freebase 2021, https://www.definitions.net/definition/school
  99. Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/adequacy
  100. Frayer, Laure. National Public Radio (NPR) India Correspondent, Overcrowded Hospitals, Oxygen Shortage: India’s COVID
  101. Garcia, Alejandra Edwards. The Importance of School Facilities in Improving Student Performance, World Dryer 2020 https://www.worlddryer.com/our-company/blog/the-importance-of-school-facilities-in-improving-s
  102. Giron, Anthony. Manila Bulletin, Imus Launches First Green School Program, February 21, 2019, https://news.mb.com.ph/2019/02/21/imus-launches-first-green-school-program/
  103. Glass, Thomas E. Life Cycle of a School Building 2020 Glass, Thomas E. Life Cycle of School Building 2020
  104. ] Go, Maria Matilde Limpahan, Comprehensive Disaster Risk Management Framework
  105. Gonzales, Catherine, Inquirer Reporter, March 30, 2020, 3:28pm / @cgonzalesINQ
  106. Google, Australian Emergency Management Glossary
  107. Google, Green school buildings are better for teachers and students, July 1, 2018 Green school buildings are better for teachers and students … www.centerforgreenschools.org
  108. Google 2008, Green Schools: Attributes for Health and Learning https://www.nap.edu/read/11756/chapter/10
  109. Greim, Cliff. PE and Jeffrey Larimer, AIA. New Construction vs Renovation for Older School Facilities, Educational Facilities, March 2005 http://www.facilitiesnet.co
  110. Heydarian, Richard, The Coronavirus and Rodrigo Duterte’s Response, April 14, 2020 https://www.cfr.org/blog/coronavirus-and-rodrigo-dutertes-response
  111. Com. Pandemics, February 2020 https://www.history.com/topics/middle-ages/pandemics-timeline
  112. com Editors, Pandemics That Changed History, May 18, 2020 https://www.history.com/topics/middle-ages/pandemics-timeline -19 Tally Breaks Records, April 24, 2021
  113. Information on Disaster Risk Reduction of the Member Countries, ADRC, Office of Civil Defense, Department of National Defense https://www.adrc.asia/nationinformation.php?NationCode=608&Lang=en
  114. International Tsunami Information Center. Vertical Evacuation Guidance, December 9, 2020 Vergara, Robert. Duterte Orders DPWH to Build Gyms that can Serve as Evacuation Centers, September 16, 2018 https://cnnphilippines.com/news/2018/09/16/rodrigo-duterte-dpwh-gyms-evacuation-center.html
  115. Inquirer, Palace: DepEd OKs use of Public Schools as Isolation Centers until December, August 11, 2020
  116. Inquirer, CHED: 28 SUCs used as COVID-19 Quarantine Facility, August 27, 2020 https://newsinfo.inquirer.net/1327888/ched-28-sucs-used-as-covid-19-quarantine-facilities
  117. International Tsunami Information Center. Vertical Evacuation Guidance,  December 9, 2020
  118. Investopedia, Sustainability https://www.investopedia.com/terms/s/sustainability.asp
  119. Innova,How Important is Lighting in a Classroom? December 05, 2014, https://www.innovadesigngroup.co.uk/news/how-important-is-lighting-in-a-classroom/
  120. Ismael, Javier Joe, Gatchalian Nixes Use of Classrooms as Isolation Facilities,  The Manila Times August 2020 https://www.msn.com/en-ph/news/national/gatchalian-nixes-use-of-classrooms-as-isolation-facilities/ar-BB18gtvL
  121. Jenny Salesa and Carmel Sepulon. Guide to designing accessible public buildings released, January 28, 2019 https://www.beehive.govt.nz/release/guide-designing-accessible-public-buildings-released
  122. Jonathan P, Guevarra, Caridad A. Ancheta, Jason O. De La Pena, Adelwisa R. Ortega and Theresita R. Lariosa (ACTA MedicaVol. 41 No, 2 July- December 2007, PP 78-84. http://upmcphresearchoffice.weebly.com/assessment-of-disaster-preparedness-in-selected-public-schools-in-luzon-philippines.html
  123. Jones, Nicholas. School Congestion in the Philippines: A Breakthrough Solution, April 5, 2017
  124. Jordan, Angellic. Pasay LGU, Converted Container Vans as COVID-19 Isolation Facility, August 27, 2020 : https://radyo.inquirer.net/261592/pasay-lgu-ipina-convert-ang-container-vans-para-maging-covid-19-isolation-facility#ixzz6WJa0VPZq
  125. Kell, Georg. Four Lessons We Should Learn From The Pandemic, April 11, 2020
  126. Lay, Simon. Alternative Evacuation Design Solutions for High Rise Building
  127. Llanera, Jomar C. and Randy D. Punzalan. School Safety Hazards Preparedness of Public Elementary Schools in the Division of Calamba East District, DepEd, Calamba City
  128. Llego, Mark Anthony. DepEd School Buildings Performance Standards and Specifications https://www.teacherph.com/2016-new-deped-school-building -designs/
  129. Ligaya Leah Figueroa, Samsung Lim and Jihyun Lee. Spatial analysis to identify disparities in Philippine public school facilities https://rsa.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/21681376.2015.1099465#.XqFTY6EzZdg
  130. Lipsett, Anthea. Education Guardian 2007, Secondary School buildings ‘at Root of Problems’ http://www.theguardian.com/education/2007/jul/16/schools.architecture
  131. Lohman, Judith. School Building Code Compliance Projects http://www.cga.ct.gov/2006/rpt/2006-R-0640.htm
  132. Lopez, Virgel. GMA News, DepEd Issues Guidelines on Using Schools as COVID- 19 Quarantine Areas, March 2020. https://www.gmanetwork.com/news/news/nation/731529/deped-issues-guidelines-on-using-schools-as-covid-19-quarantine-areas/story/
  133. Mackay, Jory. Time Management, Workplace Productivity, May 5, 2020
  134. Manila-Based Architecture Firm Designs Temporary Quarantine Facilities https://www.architecturalrecord.com/articles/14553-manila-based-architecture-firm-designs-temporary-quarantine-facilities
  135. Manila Bulletin, August 9, 2010, Philippines: Ranked 1st as World’s Most Disaster-Prone Area. http://barriosiete.com/philippines-ranked-1st-as-worlds-most-disaster-prone-area/ Multiple Risk Map of the Philippines
  136. Malipot, Merlina Hernando. Same Old Problems to Welcome 27.20 Million Learners to School This Year, June 2, 2019 World Health Organizations. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): Schools, September 18, 2020
  137. Manjares,Ma. April Mier, Inquirer Southern Luzon, Sorsogon Mayors to Identify Quarantine Areas for Persons Watched for COVID-19, April 01,2020
  138. Maps Info Philippines http://www.maps.nfo.ph/philippines
  139. Rules of Thumb for Limiting Contagion in Makeshift Facilities, The Role of Architecture in Fighting COVID- 19, April 13, 2020
  140. Mateo, Janvic. The Philippine Star, 312 Schools Still in Use as Evacuation Centers, January 23, 2020 https://www.philstar.com/other-sections/education-and-home/2020/01/23/1986948/312-schools-still-use-evacuation-centers
  141. McLeod, S. A. (2020, March 20). Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Simply Psychology. https://www.simplypsychology.org/maslow.html
  142. Merriam Webster Dictionary, Learning https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/learning
  143. Metro News Central, San Juan to Convert High School Building into Quarantine Facility http://metronewscentral.net/pasay/metro-cities/san-juan-to-convert-high-school-building-into-quarantine-facility
  144. Minnesota Department of Health , COVID-19 Cleaning and Disinfecting Guidance for Schools and Child Care Programs, June 18, 2020
  145. Mishra, SK, Senior Deputy Director, Western Journal of Medicine, Infectious Diseases that Pose Specific Challenges After Natural Disasters: a review. Accessed April 27, 2021
  146. Morris, John. Historic Buildings, Accessibility and a Lesson from the Ramps of Ancient Greece, July 22, 2020 https://wheelchairtravel.org/historic-buildings-accessibility-lesson-from-ancient-greece-ramps/
  147. Musico, Jelly. Philippine News Agency, Duterte Wants use of School as Evacuation Centers Minimized, September 14, 2018. https://www.pna.gov.ph/articles/1048022 PhilGood Speeches, YouTube Hirit sa mga Arkitekto, November  20, 2020
  148. Musicman, Elementary School in the Philippines, 2017 http://travelman1971.hubpages.com/hub/Elementary-Education-in-the-Philippines
  149. NASA, Global Climate Change https://climate.nasa.gov/effects/
  150. National Academic Press, Community Disaster Resilience, March 2006 www.nap.edu
  151. Philippine Daily Inquirer, Opinion, Need For Permanent Evacuation Centers, December 21, 2017 https://opinion.inquirer.net/109643/need-permanent-evacuation-centers#ixzz6ZcTvTlzC
  152. Philkoei International Inc. 2017, Technical Services for Constructing Infrastructure Works (Multipurpose Hall and Evacuation Center) in Leyte https://www.philkoei.com.ph/singleProject/45 Plan International, COVID 19: Quarantine Center Condition Must Improve in Nepal, June 26, 2020
  153. Relief Web. Philippines: Floods and Typhoons 2020 (Typhoon Goni) Operation Update Report n° MDRPH0414 December 04, 2020
  154. Evacuation Centers to Strengthen Resilience and Create Safe Communities during Disasters in Malawi, February 13, 2018
  155. UNICEF, What We Do, Education 2021
  156. US DOE-Energy Smart Schools 2021 https://www.google.com/search?q=US+DOE-Energy+Smart+Schools&oq=US+DOE-Energy+Smart+Schools&aqs=chrome..69i57.2136j0j7&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8 https://www.dgsapps.dgs.ca.gov/DSA/SustainableSchools/sustainabledesign/energy/naturalventilation.html   Copyright © 2007 State of California.
  157. The Guardian, Teacher Network, School design: how important are buildings to learning? March 27, 2013 https://www.theguardian.com/teacher-network/teacher-blog/2013/mar/22/school-design-architecture-buildings-learning-live-chat
  158. The OSLO Manifesto. Design and architecture for the SDGs, How School Building Design Can Support Better Learning, May 2021
  159. Oxford English Dictionary https://www.lexico.com/definition/caring Vocabulary.com https://www.vocabulary.com/dictionary/evacuation
  160. Plan International, COVID 19: Quarantine Center Condition Must Improve in Nepal, June 26, 2020
  161. Radu, Sintia, The Top 5 Deadliest Disasters in 2019, Dec. 3, 2019, at 3:49 p.m. https://www.usnews.com/news/best-countries/slideshows/5-of-the-deadliest-natural-disasters-in-2019?slide=7
  162. Rueckert, Phineas. 10 Barriers to Education That Children Living in Poverty Face, August 13, 2019, https://www.globalcitizen.org/en/content/10-barriers-to-education-around-the-world-2/
  163. Rappler, Singapore Extends Coronavirus Curbs as Cases Surge, April 21, 2020
  164. Sudworth, John, BBC News, Beijing, February 11, 2020 https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-51449675
  165. Thomas, Christopher J., Advisor to the Education Global Practice – World Bank, April 13, 2020
  166. Solis, Emmanuel. Legazpi City, DPWH to jointly build quarantine building, August 12, 2020 https://www.pna.gov.ph/articles/1112008
  167. Sudworth, John, BBC News, Beijing, February 11, 2020 https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-51449675
  168. Tan, Lara. CNN Philippines, Government Fast-tracks Conversion of Facilities into COVID-19 Quarantine Sites, Apr 1, 2020 10:54:55 AM https://www.cnnphilippines.com/news/2020/4/1/Quarantine-facilities-PICC-WTC-Rizal-Memorial.html
  169. The Division of the State Architect’s Sustainable Schools Resource, Energy Resources
  170. Thomas, Christopher J., Advisor to the Education Global Practice – World Bank, April 13, 2020
  171. Ugnayan, Catanduanes Tribune, Unsafe Evacuation Centers a Trap for Typhoon Evacuees, August 18, 2019 http://www.catanduanestribune.com/article/42DU
  172. UN- Spider, Knowledge Portal, Extreme Weather Events, Major Disasters Among top Five in Global Risks Report 2020 http://www.un-spider.org/news-and-events/news/extreme-weather-events-major-disasters-among-top-five-global-risks-report-2020
  173. Evacuation Centers to Strengthen Resilience and Create Safe Communities during Disasters in Malawi, February 13, 2018
  174. Urban Hub, Mixed- use Buildings: Make the Most of Your Building https://www.urban-hub.com/buildings/mixed-use-buildings-for-diversified-sustainable-sites/
  175. US Green Building Council https://www.usgbc.org/articles/what-green-school
  176. Vergano, Dan, Jan Lee and Marrianne Lavelle. National Geographic, 5 Reasons the Philippines Is So Disaster Prone, November 11, 2013 https://www.nationalgeographic.com/news/2013/11/131111-philippines-dangers-haiyan-yolanda-death-toll-rises/
  177. Water Care, 2021. http://watercare.com.ph/rainwater.html
  178. Weeks, Katie. Report: Green Buildings Can Play Role in Disaster Preparedness http://www.architectmagazine.com/climate-change/report-green-buildings-can-play-role-in-disaster-preparedness.aspx
  179. Welsh, Tyler Blinth. Wall Street Journal, Notes on the News, 2014 After the Storm: Disaster-Proof Designs in the Philippines, November 07, 2014 https://www.zipmatch.com/blog/disaster-proof-designs-in-philippines/
  180. Wilson Macha, Christopher Mackie, and Jessica Magaziner, Knowledge Analysts at WES, https://wenr.wes.org/2018/03/education-in-the-philippines
  181. Reported Cases and Deaths by Country, Territory, or Conveyance, October 5, 2020. https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/
  182. World Bank Doubles Philippines Natural Disaster Risk Insurance with US$390 Million in Coverage, January 14, 2019. https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2019/01/14/world-bank-doubles-philippines-natural-disaster-risk-insurance-with-us390-million-in-coverage
  183. Wong, Chun Han. The Wall Stree Journal, Philippine Students Share Space With the Displaced, Tempers Flare in Schools Doubling as Shelters for Typhoon Evacuees, February 17, 2014
  184. Verma, Deepti. The Importance of Lighting and Ventilation in School Buildings – Discussed! March 2021 https://www.shareyouressays.com/knowledge/the-importance-of-lighting-and-ventilation-in-school-buildings-discussed/101826
  185. 2016 World Risk Report
  186. Google Search, Importance of School, January 23, 2020 The Division of the State Architect’s Sustainable Schools Resource, Energy Resources
  187. DepED Educational Facilities Manual, (Revised Edition of the 2007 Handbook on Educational Facilities – Integrating Disaster Risk Reduction in School Construction)

For Conference & Paper Publication​

UIJRT Publication - International Journal