UIJRT » United International Journal for Research & Technology

Analysis of Classroom Interaction Patterns and Students’ Learning Outcomes in Physics in Kogi State, Nigeria

Total Views / Downloads: 118 

Cite ➜

Abuh, Y.P., 2021. Analysis of Classroom Interaction Patterns and Students’ Learning Outcomes in Physics in Kogi State, Nigeria. United International Journal for Research & Technology (UIJRT), 2(8), pp.192-201.


The paper is a research investigation on the analysis of classroom interaction pattern and students’ learning outcomes in physics in Ankpa education zone of Kogi state, Nigeria. The study was guided by three research questions. The study adopted descriptive survey design. The population of the study comprised of all the secondary schools and all the physics teachers in Ankpa education zone of Kogi state. A sample of 344 SSI students was used as respondents (227 males and 117 females) and 10 physics teachers (9males and 1 female). Total sample size for the study was 354 for both students and teachers drawn from 10 intact classes of SS1 physics in 10 secondary schools in the zone using purposive sampling technique. The instrument used for the collation of data was direct observation manual (DOM), a modified Flanders interaction analysis category. The instrument was face-validated by 2 experts in physics education and one expert in measurement and evaluation both from Kogi State University, Anyigba. The reliability coefficient of the instrument DOM was determined using Pearson product-moment correlations to be 0.78. Data collected were analyzed using simple percentage. The raw scores are converted into percentages. The results of the findings are coded based on the average percentages of the boys (males), girls (females) and choral responses (the whole class) to the teachers’ question. The findings of the studies revealed that questions that elicit answer and repetition purpose were mostly answered chorally in both single and mixed schools and that the feedback of the teacher affects the pattern and extent of classroom interaction in physics lesson. The study revealed that teachers use only one style of feedback, affirmation, more, neglecting other forms of feedback styles that can enhance positive interaction among teachers and learners for better learning outcomes in physics teaching and learning. The study equally revealed that feminine gender interacts positively among themselves than the masculine gender in the physics lesson. This indicates that girls are shy of interacting with the teacher and the boys during classroom instruction in physics. Analysis of the research revealed that the teachers do not interact actively with their students and most of the physics teachers lack the qualities of a good teacher. Teachers adopt only one method of teaching which was mainly for the lecture method. The opportunity to interact more among themselves and quality of classroom interaction was very poor. Boys had a greater proportional share of positive interaction pattern than the girls during physics lessons. Based on the findings, recommendations were made, that physics teacher should avoid discrimination in their classroom interaction with male and female students. Girls should be motivated in whatever way possible to participate in classroom interaction since it helps them to learn better among others.

Keywords: Analysis of Classroom Interaction, Pattern of Interaction, Students’ Learning Outcomes and Physics.


  1. Abuh, P.Y. & Emmanuel, E.E. (2019). Utilization of cognitive conflict instructional strategy and conceptual change pedagogy for enhancement of student’s attention in physics. Intentional Journal of Education and Learning, 2(1), 42 – 57.
  2. Abuh, P.Y.(2021). Cognative conflict and conceptual change strategies on Analysis of classroom interaction in physics lessons. Unpublished PhD thesis, Bennue university, makurdi.
  3. Allele, Williams, G. (2014). Promoting female participation in sciences, technology and mathematics education. Education today, 7(1), 25 – 34.
  4. Achor, E.E. (2015). Teaching waves and radioactivity using innovative approaches. In R.M.O. Samba & J.O. Eriba (Eds.), innovative approaches to teaching difficult concepts (128 – 148). Makurdi: Destiny Venture.
  5. Akpan, E.U. (2016). Trend in swing away from science. Journal of science teacher’s association of Nigeria (STAN), 38(1 & 2), 21 – 31.
  6. Balogun, T.A. (2015). Woman in science and technology in Nigeria. A paper presented at GAST Conference, London. University of London, centre for science and mathematics education, 100 – 116.
  7. Clarter, W.W. (2015). The social background of teaching. In N.L. Gage (Ed.) Handbook of research on teaching. Chicago: rand Mcmally & Co.
  8. Clark, L. & Star, A. (2010). A sociological approach to education. New York: McGraw Hill.
  9. Delamont, S. (2014). Beyond Flanders field: The relationship of subject matter and individuality to classroom style. In M. Stubbs & S. Delamont (Eds.). Exploration of classroom observation (101 – 131). New York: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
  10. Ezewu, E.E. (2012). Towards a responsive teacher education programme for development of science and technology in contemporary Nigeria. Journal of Science and Technology Education, 10(1), 125 – 139.
  11. Galton, R. & William, E.A. (2012). Student sex and behavior as determinants of the type and frequency of teacher – student contacts. Journal of School of Psychology, 10(1), 133 – 142.
  12. Johnson, D.W. & Johnson, R. (2016). Positive interdependence: key to effective co-operation. In R.H. Lazarowits & N. Miller (Eds.) interaction in co-operative groups (101 – 118). United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.
  13. Onwuka, P.O. (2013). An investigation into the teacher – student’s interaction in Biology class in Udi LGA. Unpublished M.Ed. Thesis, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  14. Olarewaju, A.S. (2014). Attitude and teaching methods of some integrated science teachers relative to the Nigeria integrated project and students’ achievement. Unpublished M.Ed. Project Report, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
  15. Okafor, M.O. (2014). Analysis of classroom interaction patterns in Biology in secondary schools in Anambra state. Unpublished Ph.D Thesis, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  16. Okebukola, O.A. (2012). Impact of teachers’ verbal exposition on students’ level of class participation and performance in chemistry. Unpublished M. Ed project report university of Ibadan, Nigeria.
  17. Penick, J.E. & Shy Mansky, J.A. (2012). The effects of teacher behavior on students’ behavior in fifth-grade science. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 14(5), 27 – 32.
  18. Staberg, E.M. (2015). Girls in sciences. Contributions to the Third GASAT conference: Chelsea college, university of London, 268 – 275.
  19. Udeani, O.A. (2014). Learning outcomes in Biology as related to teachers and student’s characteristics and classroom interaction pattern. Journal of science, technology and mathematics education (JSTME), 8(3), 42 – 51.
  20. WAEC, (2008 – 2018). Senior School Certificate Examination, May / June Chief Examiners’ Reports. Yaba Lagos: WAEC press.

For Conference & Paper Publication​

UIJRT Publication - International Journal